Saturday, October 31, 2020

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Saturday, November 23, 2019

Best Plant Based Protein For Building Muscle

Best Plant Based Protein For Building Muscle

This article discusses the best plant based protein for building muscle. Over the years, bodybuilders have gorged on large amounts of animal protein to build muscle. Over the years, researchers have studied the effects of animal meat on humans. More and more evidence is emerging about the harmful effects.

Meantime, the argument continues as to whether or not animal protein is better than plant based sources for building muscle. A plethora of plant based bodybuilding organizations have also sprung up worldwide. Promoting plant based bodybuilding, their members are thriving and winning competitions.

What are proteins?

Proteins are large molecules made up of smaller units called amino acids. They are found in animal and plant foods. They function in the body in various ways:

- function in body maintenance
- repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues
- forming the structure of body cells and tissues.
- forming the large proportion of muscles and organs.
- they are an essential constituent of certain hormones.
- they are needed for growth and development of the body.
- provide and produce enzymes which are needed for all kinds of body reactions.

American Heart Association study shows that mono-unsaturated fats from plants may reduce risk of death from heart disease and other causes

A preliminary research report from the American Heart Association screamed, "Mono-unsaturated fats from plants, not animals may reduce risk of death from heart disease and other causes." According to the report, diets rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids from plants were associated with a lower risk of dying from heart disease or other causes.
In comparison, diets rich in mono-unsaturated fats from animals were linked to a higher risk of death from heart disease or other causes.

Sources of mono-unsaturated fats from plants include

olive oil
other vegetable oils
many nuts and seeds

Sources of mono-unsaturated fats from animals include

red meats
full-fat dairy products

The researchers conducted the study based on on a review of data from 84, 084 participants who were followed up over 22 year in two large studies. These were the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. The purpose of these studies was to assess the composition of the participants' diets. Both studies used detailed food-frequency questionnaires which were administered every four years.

The researchers found that:

Participants with a higher intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids from plants had a 16 percent lower risk of death from any cause compared to those with lower intakes.

Participants with a higher intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids from animals had a 21 percent higher risk of death from any cause.

Marta Guasch-Ferré, Ph.D., one of the lead researchers concluded that:

"Our results emphasize the importance of the source and quantity of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the diet...we should eat more mono-unsaturated fatty acids from plant sources and less mono-unsaturated fatty acids from animal sources."

Semi-veggie diet effectively lowers heart disease, stroke risk according to the American Heart Association, 2015)

A study was conducted on almost half a million people from 10 European countries. They were part of a mammoth European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) which commenced in 1992. Participants were aged between 35 to 70 years at the start and were free of chronic diseases.

Researchers collected the following information

height and weight
lifestyle and physical activity habits
food consumption by a self-reported food frequency questionnaires
Causes and dates of death were obtained from record linkages with boards of health, and active follow-up of participants.

How participants were scored

1. Researchers scored participants based on the types of foods they ate.
2. Points were added for their intake of vegetables, fruit, beans, cereals, potatoes, nuts, and olive oil.
3. Points were subtracted for five animal food groups: meats, animal fats, eggs, fish, and other seafood or dairy products.
4. Participants were categorized from the least pro-vegetarian to the most, depending on their scores.
5. Researchers then analyzed the relationship between participants' eating habits and death risks from heart disease and stroke.


The researchers found that a pro-vegetarian diet with a higher proportion of plant-based foods may help lower the risks of dying from heart disease and stroke by up to 20 percent. Researchers suggest that substituting some of the meat in your diet with vegetables may be a simple way to lower the risk of heart-related death.


Researcher Lassale recommended a gradual reduction of animal based foods in the diet:

"Instead of drastic avoidance of animal-based foods, substituting some of the meat in your diet with plant-based sources may be a very simple, useful way to lower cardiovascular mortality," said . These findings are in line with the wealth of evidence on benefits of eating plant foods to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

In addition, The American Heart Association recommends a heart-healthy diet. A heart healthy diet is pro-vegetarian and is high in:

whole grains

While we support full vegetarian, the American Heart Association heart healthy diet also includes low-fat dairy, skinless poultry, and fish. The recommendation also includes foods low in saturated, trans fats and sodium, and limiting added sugars and red meats.

University of Lincoln 2019 research on the effects of plant vs animal protein on muscle building

An interesting study published by the University of Lincoln discovered that milk based protein shakes may not be the answer for post-gym muscle pain.Sports scientists found that shakes made from whey-protein (from the liquid part of milk) and a milk-based formulas did not enhance the rate of muscle recovery following resistance training.

The study divided 30 male participants into three groups. Each of these had at least a year's resistance training experience. Each group consuming one of the following drinks following a prescribed intensive resistance training session:

- whey hydrolysate based drink
- milk based drink
- flavoured dextrose (carbohydrate) drink

The researchers tested the bodybuilders 24 to 48 hours after the resistance training session. Participants were asked to rate their levels of muscle soreness on a visual scale. The scale ranged from 'no muscle soreness' (0) to muscle soreness as bad as it could be' (200). Participants also completed a series of strength and power assessments to test their muscle function.

Results showed a significant rise in the levels of muscle soreness across the three groups 24 hours and 48 hours after the initial resistance training session. Soreness ratings for all groups rose to over 90. This was significantly higher than the baseline muscle soreness ratings, which ranged from 19-26.

Results also showed reductions in muscle power and function. The findings suggest there was no difference in recovery response between the different formulas and no additional benefit of protein consumption on muscle recovery.

In conclusion, Dr Thomas Gee, Lead author and researcher said:

"While proteins and carbohydrates are essential for the effective repair of muscle fibres following intensive strength training, our research suggests that varying the form of protein immediately following training does not strongly influence the recovery response or reduce muscle pain."

I must comment that one limitation of the study is that a plant based protein drink was not included. For example, there are plants which reduce inflammation - coconut, turmeric, moringa, mangosteen, cactus and others

Protein content of plant based foods

The table below shows that brocolli and sweet corn have the highest percentage of protein.

food composition chart


American Heart Association. (2018, March 21). Mono-unsaturated fats from plants, not animals may reduce risk of death from heart disease and other causes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 23, 2019 from

American Heart Association. (2015, March 5). Semi-veggie diet effectively lowers heart disease, stroke risk. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 23, 2019 from

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. (2019, April 9). Substituting healthy plant proteins for red meat lowers risk for heart disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 21, 2019 from

Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center. (2018, April 3). Meat protein is unhealthy, but protein from nuts and seeds is heart smart: Study reports major comparison of animal, plant proteins. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 21, 2019 from

University of Lincoln. (2019, September 3). Protein shakes may not be the answer for post-gym muscle pain. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 23, 2019 from

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Plant Based Bodybuilding Transformation

What is a plant based bodybuilding?

This article on plant based bodybuilding seeks to direct bodybuilders to plant based foods as an optimal source of nutrition for muscle building.

Most bodybuilders focus on eating large amounts of animal protein for muscle building. Much emphasis is not paid to other food sources at times.

According to Marion Nestle, “Protein is most definitely not a synonym for meat” (cited in, 2019).

In this series, I will therefore attempt to establish the overall benefits of eating plants as sources of proteins and other nutrients.

The US Government has launched MyPlate, which pays greater attention to the plant based diet

In defense of my position, I draw to your attention the US Government's 2011 retirement of the food pyramid in favor of MyPlate.

MyPlate models five food groups on a plate and pays special attention to a plant based diet. These five food groups are:

- fruits
- vegetables
- proteins
- grains
- dairy

MyPlate divides each plate into four unequal sections to represent different food groups. The sections are:

- Vegetables - the largest section.
- Grains - the second largest.
- Fruits and vegetables fill half of the plate.
- Proteins and grains each fill the other half.
- A dairy product is on the side.

The protein section of MyPlate is "open." In other words, proteins can originate from sources like fish, shellfish, eggs, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds in addition to meat. Dairy is on the side of the plate and is represented by a small blue circle.

Two observations are that some of the complex carbohydrates like tubers are not included. Examples include yams, sweet potatoes, cassava and others. These types of complex carbohydrates provide a greater degree of energy and fullness throughout the day in my personal experience.

Good fat sources are also not identified. However, MyPlate is a great improvement over the previous food pyramid in which the volume of plant intake was smaller.

MyPlate on

What is the MAIN overall health benefit of the plant based diet?

Humans need to eat green plants because they give off oxygen. This is how it happens:

1. Green plants absorb Chlorophyll, a substance in sunlight.
2. Chlorophyll uses carbon dioxide (which is released from human and animals) and water to make energy.
3. Plants give off oxygen as an end product of energy creation.
4. Humans need oxygen for every body function and survival. We can live only about 4 minutes without oxygen supply.
5. Therefore, bodybuilders can increase oxygen supply for optimal muscle function by eating green plants.

What is the MAIN overall health benefit of eating fruits in the diet?

1. Fruits contain yellowish to reddish pigments called carotenoids which are antioxidants.
2. These carotenoids are actually the form in which chlorophyll exists in fruits.
3. Therefore fruits will also oxygenate your body and provide necessary life giving elements to muscle cells.

Fruits and vegetables in the plant based diet are antioxidants which provide important protective functions

Fruits and vegetables are rich in natural substances called antioxidants. Examples of antioxidants include

- Beta-carotene
- Lutein
- Lycopene
- Selenium
- Vtamin A
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin E

Antioxidants protects healthy cells from injury. They have also been found to be protective against cancer, heart disease and other lifestyle related diseases. Therefore, bodybuilders will enhance overall health and well being by paying attention to eating fruits and vegetables since they posseess the oxygenation and anitoxidant benefits.

Eating fruits and vegetables protect bodybuilders from free radicals which are injurious substances released during exercise

Free radicals are substances that are produced internally under two conditions. One of these is during exercise and the other is when the body converts food into energy.

Environmental elements are other external sources of free radicals. These include cigarette smoke, air pollution, and sunlight, to name a few.

In turn, free radicals can cause the body to go into a state called “oxidative stress.” Oxidative stress triggers cell damage. Oxidative stress is linked to diseases including cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and eye diseases.

Can you imagine the amount of free radical damage and oxidative stress that occurs during each bodybuilding activity, This is the reason why fruits and vegetables are highly recommended to prevent this kind of damage.

When we think of all the activity that muscle cells go through during exercise.

What foods in the plant based diet are particularly high in antioxidants?

Antioxidant rich foods include:

Citrus fruits - oranges, grapefruit etc
Tropical fruits like banana, dates, mango and guava
Sunflower seeds
Sesame seeds
Ground flaxseed
Legumes — such as kidney beans, edamame and lentils
Sweet potatoes
Veggies like artichokes, kale, bell peppers, asparagus, beets, broccoli, red cabbage and tomatoes.

Note that you should use the fruits and vegetable that are indigenous to your country even if they are not listed here.

We'll continue the discussion in an upcoming article.

Click the link below to see our recommended resource for your plant based bodybuilding transformation

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Mayo Clinic. (2019). Healthy lifestyle: antioxidants. Retrieved from

Medline Plus. (2019). Antioxidants. Retrieved from

Moss, M. (2019). Baby milestones: plants in baby's diet. Retrieved from

National Center For Complimentary And Integrative Health. (2016). Antioxidants: In depth. Retrieved from

National Center For Health Research. (2011). MyPlate: A New Alternative to the Food Pyramid. Retrieved from

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Natural Bodybuilding For Bodybuilders

What is natural bodybuilding?

Natural bodybuilding is defined as a discipline of bodybuidling It focuses on abstinence from performance enhancing drugs. A performance enhancing drug is defined as a substance which is illegal, unethical or cheating in the sports world.

Performance enhancing drugs are defined as substances that athletes take in order to “heighten their abilities in the performance of their sport” (, 2019)

Rules governing the ingestion of performance enhancing substances in natural bodybuilding

The World Natural Bodybuilding Federation (2019) provides a very extensive list of enhancing drugs that are prohibited in natural bodybuilding. The Federation strictly prohibits drug use and encourages bodybuilders to compare labels against the list before making a purchase. Each athlete in their championships must undergo drug tests in order to participate.

According to the regulations, all members must meet the following testing standards prior to their first competition. They must:

be free of prescription or pharmaceutical hormones on the banned list for 10 years.

test negative for over-the-counter hormones, pro-hormones or banned substances two years. listed or their chemical counterparts, unless otherwise noted.

never use a prescription more frequently or at higher doses than prescribed by their medical doctor. Members can never use medications for bodybuilding or weight loss purposes. All prescriptions issued by a physician must be current and the athlete must present a copy to promoters at all events of the International Bodybuilding Federation/World Natural Bodybuilding Federation.

What performance enhancing drugs are banned by the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation?

As of September 2nd 2009, the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation issued a list of banned substances. The categories and at least four related drugs are presented below:

All Anabolic Steroids including, but not limited to



Testosterone is strictly prohibited in any form, even if it is prescribed by a medical practitioner. These include creams, gels, patches, pellets, and injections.

Growth Hormones

Pharmaceutical HGH, HCG, and any other related compounds including Insulin-Like Growth Factors such as

Somatomedin C

Pro-Hormones, Precursors and Metabolites, Derivatives, and Related Compounds

The following are banned substances and their ban time frame:

5-Etioallocholen-3b,7b,17b-triol and/or substances similar in structure – as of January 1, 2019 these substances shall carried a two (2) year ban time frame.

Any hormone, including insulin, (injectable, oral, sublingual or otherwise) used for bodybuilding purposes

Designer and Pro Steroids are Banned and Carry a 10 Year Ban Time-frame
Ergomax LMG

All hormonal precursors and their metabolites and isomers. Athletes must abstain from the following substances for 90 days (3 Months) before competing in the of abstinence prior to competing in championships of the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation or its affiliate federations for the first time.

Pro Hormonal Fat Burning Supplements including

6 OXO Through 2019 – New members will be ineligible for competitions for 3 months if they are supplementing with 6 OXO and/or related compounds:
6 OXOandrostenetrione
1,4,6androstatriene3, 17dione

Ephedrine, Ephedra, and Stimulants

Natural bodybuilders cannot use Ephedrine and Ephedra for 3 months before joining the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation for the first time

Athletes are given a 30 day amnesty before being eligible to compete in any competition of the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation for the first time. This is because many bodybuilding products contain DMAA and/or related compounds.

Banned drugs in this category include:

(4 amino-2-Methylpantane citrate)

Psychomotor Stimulants

Stimulants/medications prescribed or non prescribed used for bodybuilding and/or weight loss purposes are banned in certain time frames. Stimulants or medications that produce similar physiological effects even if not expressly listed are prohibited for use in natural bodybuilding.

These include:

Bupropion Hydrochloride

Cannabinoids & CBD’s

These are prohibited for use the day of any INBF/WNBF polygraph examination.
At this time the INBF/WNBF has not moved toward banning cannabis and/or CBD’s in season.

Prescription Diuretics & Masking Agents

If they use prescription diuretics for bodybuilding, members are banned from for three months from competitions of the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation.

If prescribed for acne, Spironolactone MAY NOT be used for 14 days prior to any competition of the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation.

Drugs in this category include:


What drug tests are carried out by the the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation?

The World Natural Bodybuilding Federation carries out the following drug tests on members in order to determine compliance with natural bodybuilding guidelines:

Testosterone/Epitestosterone (T/E) Ratio

The Testosterone/Epitestosterone (T/E) Ratio analyzes the blood for the presence of exogenous testosterone or illicit elevation of testosterone levels. T/E ratios in excess of 6/1 are ruled as positive regardless of the cause.

Furthermore, the athlete will fail the test if the T/E ratio exceeds the 6/1 limit.

Urine testing

The urine is tested for the presence of banned substances. Natural bodybuilders are deemed have a Urine Test Failure if the drug is present.

Polygraph examination

Commonly referred to as the lie detector test, a polygraph, is a device or procedure that measures and records blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions (wikipedia, 2019).

Organizations that govern natural bodybuilding

World Natural Bodybuilding Federation (WNBF)

Internationally recognized as a drug free natural bodybuilding federation, the WNBF has conducted 30 years of stringent drug testing.

Member benefits include drug testing integrity worldwide; athlete centered organization; high cash prize payouts to Pro’s and participation in organized and competitive events.

United Kingdom Drug Free Bodybuilding Association

The United Kingdom Drug Free Bodybuilding Association is an affiliate of the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation. It was founded in 2011.

The British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF)

A non profit organization, the British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF) conducts polygraphs and urine tests on every finalist at every show. They also conduct random tests out of competition in order to maintain compliance.

Drug Free Athletes Coalition (DFAC)

Also a non profit, The Drug Free Athletes Coalition Every athlete finalist also polygraphs finalists and performs urine tests on class winners at every show. Compliance is also strengthened by out competition random tests.

International Natural Bodybuilding Association

Founded by Wayne McDonald in 1991, the International Natural Bodybuilding Association conducts competitions in bodybuilding, physique; figure, fitness and bikini.

With headquarters in Australia, the International Natural Bodybuilding Association organizes at least 40 domestic championships in every state and territory of Australia. The Association strictly adheres to drug testing and compliance standards.

Other natural bodybuilding organizations include

North American Natural Bodybuilding Federations (NANBF)
Organization of Competition Bodies (OCB)
Natural Bodybuilding e Fitness Italia (NBFI)
World Natural BodyBuilding Spain (WNBF)
Escuela Culturismo Natural (ECN)

Sunday, November 3, 2019

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Saturday, June 1, 2019

Bodybuilding: Fatty Acids Benefits For Bodybuilders

What are fatty acids?

Fatty acids are the building blocks of the fat in human bodies. In order to be usable by the body, foods containing fats are broken down in the small intestine into smaller products called fatty acids. These fatty acids are then transported across the wall of the small intestine into the blood to be used or stored for future purposes.

Fatty acids are usually joined together in groups of three, forming a structure called a triglyceride.

Understanding more about fats and their benefits

Although the words fats and fatty acids might conjure up a picture of obesity and other horrible diseases, the body actually needs them for many useful purposes which include:

  • insulate the body.

  • storage of energy.

  • production of energy.

  • protect body organs against shock.

  • release of energy when blood glucose is depleted.

  • build nerve tissue (including the brain and nerves).

  • uptake of Vitamins A, D E and K from the small intestine into the blood. These are fat soluble vitamins because they can only be absorbed if there’s fat in a person’s diet.

  • build hormones or substances which are made in structures called glands. Examples include testosterone in males and estrogen and testosterone in females.

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What are three types of fats or fatty acids needed by the human body?

Three types of fats or fatty acids can be taken in via food sources. They are:

  • Saturated  fats or fatty acids

  • Monounsaturated fats or fatty acids

  • Polyunsaturated fats or fatty acids

Saturated fats or  fatty acids originate from both animal fats and plant oils.  They are usually solid at room temperature.

These types of fatty acids are either short-chain (containing 4–12 carbon chains), mid-chain (containing 13–16 carbon long chains) and long-chain fatty acids {containing 17–26 carbon chains).

Foods sources that are high in saturated fat include:

  • fatty cuts of meats

  • skin from poultry – remove the skin when cooking

  • full fat dairy products like butter, milk, yoghurt, cheese and cream

  • Many take-away foods and processed foods, such as pies, pastries, doughnuts, cakes and biscuits.

  • Plant sources include palm oil, coconut oil, and palm kernel oil. 

Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature. They are needed for good health and are better for bodybuilders. These fats help to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke by lowering the ‘bad’ (low density lipoprotein or LDL) cholesterol in the blood.

Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are found in foods such as:

  • avocado

  • nuts and seeds

  • sunflower, olive, peanut and sesame oils

  • some vegetable oils and margarine spreads

  • oily fish, including salmon, sardines, blue mackerel and tuna

blood clots


Can body builders use the saturated fatty acids in coconut oil?

Saturated fats or fatty acids are also found in tropical oils, like palm kernel or coconut oil. However, coconut oil possesses medium chain triglycerides or MCTs which are shorter than most other fats.Medium chain triglycerides from coconut oil go straight to the liver where they are rapidly used for energy or converted into ketones.

Ketones can have powerful benefits for the brain, and are being studied as treatment for conditions like epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease.

Additionally, coconut oil has been shown to have many beneficial effects such as:

  • increasing the usage of fat in the body.

  • killing harmful germs and protect from disease

  • Reducing hunger thus helping individuals to reduce food intake. Increasing the good cholesterol or High Density Lipoprotein or HDL. This is important in reducing heart disease.

  • Improving the moisture content of the skin thus reducing symptoms of eczema

What are the essential fatty acids?

The two major classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

Of the two, Omega-3 fatty acids are the most beneficial since they can reduce the risk for heart disease and cancer. Omega-3s are found in fish and fish oil, all green leafy vegetables, flax seed, hemp, and walnuts.

Omega-3s play the following important roles in the body-

  • They are components of the phospholipids that form and maintain the structures of human building blocks aka cell walls and membranes

  • DHA, an Omega 3, is especially high in the retina of the eye, brain, and sperm

  • Omega-3s (along with omega-6s) provide energy for the body.

  • They help to reduce inflammation which is an underlying cause of disorders like asthma

  • Play an important role in reducing migraines.

  • The Omega 3s play a wide role in general health and well being.

The Omega-6 fatty acids are found corn oil and vegetable oils used in so much American food. Too much omega 6 can raise the blood pressure, lead to blood clots that can lead to  heart attack and stroke and cause the body to retain water.

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Bodybuilding Supplements: New Research Shows That Protein Supplement L-norvaline Is Potentially Harmful To The Brain

2019 Research Shows That Protein Supplement L-norvaline Is Potentially Harmful To The Brain

New research findings emerging in 2019 reveals that L-norvaline is potentially harmful to the human brain. The study was conducted by scientists at the University of Technology Sydney and published in Toxicology in Vitro.

L-norvaline is a popular protein component that is widely used ingredient of many bodybuilding supplements. Manufacturers claim that it can boost workouts and aid recovery. However, compounds that are similar in composition to l-norvaline have been linked to diseases which cause degeneration of nerve cells.

Therefore, bodybuilders should read product labels before purchasing in order to determine if l-norvaline is present.

Two ways in which L-norvaline harms the human cell

Overall the study showed that L-norvaline causes deleterious effects on the cellular health and function in the following ways:

L-norvaline reduced cell viability and induced necrotic cell death.
Viabiality of cell refers to the ability of cells to survive and to be healthy. To further compound matters, necrosis refers to cellular death due to decreased blood flow. Therefore, L-norvaline decreases blood flow to cells. This is the same kind of effect that is also caused by injury, radiation, or chemicals.

L-norvaline exposure led to mitochondrial fragmentation and bioenergetic dysfunction.

Mitochondria are structures found inside of human cells. They are the energy factories or power plants of the human organism. Mitochondria also produce proteins and small amounts of carbon dioxide. The source of the energy inside the cell is a molecule called Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP. This is actually manufactured inside the mitochondria.

L-norvaline breaks up the mitochondria and thus prevents it from producing the energy needed in the human body.

Why proteins are very important in normal body function and therefore to bodybuilders

First, I would like to explain that the human body normally uses substances called amino acids to manufacture protein. Proteins are essential for life and are made up of long chains of amino acids. Amino acids are made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some amino acids made in the body while the rest are derived from food.

Amino acids are divided into three groups

Essential amino acids
Nonessential amino acids
Conditional amino acids


There are 9 essential amino acids which come only from food and cannot be made by the body. They are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.


Nonessential amino acids are produced in the body. They include alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid.


Conditional amino acids required in times of illness and stress and include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine, ornithine, proline, and serine.

Here are four important functions of proteins:
Bodybuilders use protein supplements to cause muscle growth and strength. Here are four important overall functions of proteins in the human body

Providing structure - Many proteins such as collagen provide structure for the human body. Collagen is strong and cartilage and tendons.

Body defense - Proteins such as antibodies help protect us from diseases. Antibodies fight off foreign invaders such as bacteria and other toxic substances.

Providing transport - Proteins transport essential nutrients around the human body. For example, hemoglobin transports oxygen in our red blood cells.

Act as catalysts - Some proteins, such as enzymes, act as catalysts to assist in chemical reactions. They help us to break up and digest our food so it can be used by our cells.

The reason why L-norvaline is so toxic to human cells

L-norvaline is one of hundreds of other naturally occurring amino acids which are known as non-proteinogenic amino acids (NPAAs). However, these NPAAs are not useful substances. Instead, some NPAAs mimic the actions of essential protein amino acids.

The action of outcome of this mimicry can be explained by the action of L-norvaline in plants. Some plants use L-norvaline to inhibit the growth of other plants or kill herbivores. This indicates that L-norvaline may inhibit the function of the essential amino acids.

Animal and plant sources of protein

Animal sources of protein include

various types of eggs.
dairy products, such as cheese, milk, and whey.
poultry from sources such as chickens, turkeys, and quails.

Plant sources of protein

certain fruits, such as avocados
Many other nuts, grains, and vegetables also contain high amounts of protein.


University of Technology Sydney. (2019, February 7). Body building supplement could be bad for the brain: People taking the protein supplement L-norvaline should be aware of its potential for harm, scientists say. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 29, 2019 from